Musings

Critical Notes Series: Breval's Cello Sonata in G major 

Breval-Alexanian - Cello Sonata in G major, Op. 12, No. 5 (Arranged for Cello and Piano)

The late 1800s saw curiosity in Baroque and Classical composers. Between Friedrich Grützmacher (1832– 1903) and Alfredo Piatti (1822–1901), much of the ancient cello and viola da gamba music had been excavated and repurposed for contemporary audiences. Piatti’s approach is conservative and more “authentic.” Grützmacher’s approach is innovative, sometimes containing too much spice and creativity. As this curiosity continued into the 1900s, string players and pianists repurposed more repertoire with new piano parts for accompanied solo sonatas. Thanks to these efforts, Jean Baptiste Bréval (1753–1823) was one of the composers who came into the standard cello repertoire.

Carl Schröder (1848–1935) wrote a piano part for Bréval’s Op. 40 sonatas, replacing the original “cello 2” part. This arrangement was first published in 1879 by Johann André, the original publisher of Op. 40.

The next sonata by Bréval to be furnished with a piano part was the G-major Sonata, Op. 12 No. 5, created by Alfred Moffat (1863–1950), and published by Simrock in 1904. This version has stood the test of time, still being performed and recorded regularly. Of all the piano versions created in the early 1900s, Moffat’s was the most conservative with the harmonies and the cello part.

In our current edition, we would like to present the piano version of the G-major Sonata by Diran Alexanian (1881–1954), first published by Ricordi in 1918. This version takes many ideas, such as the cello cadenzas, harmonies, and piano figurations from Moffat but aims to make the piano part an equal partner to the cello. The most notable alteration to the cello part is the removal of the cello transition to the last rondo statement in the finale. Alexanian did not include fingerings in the cello part. There are some bowings. While this version of the Sonata did not have the lasting success as the Moffat version, it found champions in Maurice Eisenberg (1900–72) and Raya Garbousova (1909–97).

Our edition of Alexanian’s version is a new engraving with corrections of obvious errors and inconsistencies between the cello part and the piano score. Any deviations from the original have been marked in brackets or described in the Critical Notes at the end of this volume.

Alexanian’s was not the last version published with a piano part. Only 3 years after Alexanian, in 1921,Ricordi published a version by Joseph Salmon (1864–1943). Salmon’s cello part added fingerings and restored the 5 bars of the finale while cutting 2 bars in the first movement development. The piano part is radically different, more harpsichord-like. The Alexanian and Salmon versions were printed concurrently for some time.​ Ernst Cahnbley (1875–1936), published by Schott in 1921, re-composed the cello part almost like Grützmacher’s style, with a piano part to match. Gaspar Cassadó (1897–1966), published by the International Music Company in 1956, flipped the voicing of the cello and piano occasionally, but for the most part, used ideas from Moffat and Alexanian, with an interesting interpolation of Eisenberg’s natural harmonic idea near the end of the finale. More authentic, transparent piano parts were created by Edwin Koch (1928–2009) and Bernhard Weigart, published by Schott in 1966, and by Fedor Amosov, released by the Centaur label in 2012.

We thank the Martha Blakeney Hodges Special Collections for providing a copy of the Alexanian source.

Critical Notes Series: Brandukov's Short Pieces 

Brandukov - Collection of 10 Pieces for Cello and Piano

Anatoly Brandukov (1859-1930) was a Russian virtuoso cellist and composer. Today, he is remembered as the dedicated of Peter Tchaikovsky's Pezzo Capriccioso and Sergei Rachmaninov's Two Pieces, Op. 2, and Cello Sonata, Op. 19.  

During his lifetime, Brandukov published around a dozen of his compositions, mainly short pieces for cello and piano. His output also includes four or five cello concertos and piano works that were never published. In volume 3 of his History of the Art of the Cello (История Виолончельного Искусства), Lev Ginzburg discusses the E-minor Cello Concerto at length. The manuscripts of the concertos are housed at the Tchaikovsky State House-Museum in Klin. Other works, letters, and photographs are housed at the Russian National Museum of Music in Moscow.

In this edition, we present ten of Brandukov's pieces that were published during his lifetime. In 1885, Jurgenson published Six Pieces. The centerpiece of the set is the Nocturne (No. 2). The other pieces draw inspiration from Russian composers like Anton Rubinstein and Karl Davydov. Five of the six pieces carry dedications. The first piece, Nuit de Printemps, is dedicated to Brandukov's cello teacher Guillaume Fitzenhagen. The serene Nocturne is dedicated to Alfred Fallot, the grandfather of the cellist Guy Fallot and business partner of the car manufacturer Armand Peugeot. Romance sans Paroles is dedicated to Vera Khludova, the wife of Mikhail Khludov, a Russian businessman and manufacturer. Romance has no dedication. The Mazurka is dedicated to Edgar Jacot des Combes. The Gavotte is dedicated to the French lawyer and music historian Jules Gallay.

 

In 1887, Durand published Brandukov's Elegie in E minor. This work existed in E-flat minor as well, as can be seen in an autographed photo by Carl Reutlinger (1816-88). The Elegie was dedicated to Countess Olga Chertkova. During the same year, Durand also published Pesnia (Song), which is not included in our volume.

 

In 1901, A. Noël of Paris published six works by Brandukov, Opp. 8-13. These works are the only ones by Brandukov with opus numbers. Our volume includes Opp. 8-10. These works are markedly more mature than the works published in the 1880s. The Nocturne and Sur l'Eau deserve special attention. Sur l'Eau is reminiscent of Anatoly Lyadov's Le Lac enchanté. Ironically, Brandukov's piece predates Lyadov's by eight years. Sur l'Eau is dedicated to Countess Emanuela Potocka. Brandukov must have been aware of the wordplay between the common Slavic word "potok" (stream) and the title of the piece. Feuillet d'Album, is also similar to Lyadov in style.

We hope that these short pieces will enrich cellists' recital repertoire.

Critical Notes Series: Danzi's Cello Concerto in A major 

Critical Notes Series: Mysliveček's Cello Concerto 

Mysliveček - Cello Concerto in C major (Urtext, Orchestra Score)
Mysliveček - Cello Concerto in C major (Urtext, Orchestra Parts)
Mysliveček - Cello Concerto in C major (Urtext, Solo Part and Piano Score)

During his relatively short life, Josef Mysliveček (1737–1781) produced a large volume of compositions, including over 50 symphonies, 26 operas, concertos, and chamber music for strings and winds.​ Born in Prague, he moved to Italy, where he became known as "Il Boemo" (the Bohemian), in 1763. While much of Mysliveček's output is in the style of the day, some of his chamber works still employ a basso continuo and figured bass, such as in the sonatas for two cellos and the six Orchestra trios for two violins and cello.

Mysliveček composed ten violin concertos, a couple of keyboard concertos, and a flute concerto. He transcribed one of the violin concertos (EvaM 9b:C1) for cello. The version of this concerto for violin had already existed in 1770 as it appears in The Breitkopf Thematic Catalogue from that year. A manuscript set of parts of the violin version dated 1775 is housed at the Hauptstaatsarchiv Weimar. The concerto was originally orchestrated for solo violin, two oboes, two horns, and strings. Interestingly, the Weimar set contains extra parts for two trumpets and timpani written out by another hand and not considered original. Another copy of the violin version is housed at Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt.

In his biography Josef Mysliveček: Život a dílo, the American musicologist Daniel Freeman postulates that the cello version of this concerto was made for Antonio Vandini (1691–1778) during his stay in Padua between 1768 and 1774. Besides the change in register, the violin and cello parts are virtually the same.

The cello concerto exists in three different copies: Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (Vienna), Národní Muzeum (Prague), and Národní knihovna České republiky (Prague). The Národní Muzeum set is of particular interest. This set contains an orchestral score dated 8 December 1909, a piano reduction dated 5 January 1910, a set of parts with a solo viola part (no solo cello) dated 4 July 1910, and a "violin in F!" part (viola solo part transposed up a fifth) dated 5 July 1910. Since this set is far removed, we did not consider it for our edition. However, we can see that 140​ years after the concerto composition, the piece continued to be copied and transcribed. The set housed in the Národní knihovna České republiky is also from 1910.

Our edition is based, with kind permission, on the set housed at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. While undated, it is safe to place the copy before 1820. The solo cello part is notated in four clefs: bass, tenor, alto, and soprano. This is congruent with the practice of the time, as we also see these clefs in Haydn's Cello Concerto in C major, Boccherini's works, some of Bréval's works, and others. The use of clefs has been updated for current practice in our edition. Our edition also includes a newly composed piano reduction. All deviations from the source are marked in the footnotes of the orchestra score.

Critical Notes Series: Yagling's Suite for Cello and String Orchestra 

Victoria Yagling's Suite for Cello and String Orchestra (1967) is one of her first successes as a composer. According to her recording of the work, she composed it in 1968. Around the same time, she composed two pieces in the olden style Larghetto and Siciliana. Yagling recorded the Suite in 1980, conducted by Georgiy Vetvitskiy, released by the Melodiya (Мелодия) Label, catalog number С10 19803 002 on the collection called "Young Composers of Moscow: Chamber Music" (Молодые Композиторы Москвы: Камерная музыка). Yagling also recorded the Elegy by Andrey Golovin and the Sonata-Ballade by Armenak Shakhbagyan on the same album.
 
The movement layout of the Suite is fast-slow-fast-slow, a layout also used by Dmitri Shostakovich in his Fifteenth Symphony. On the back of the abovementioned album, Natalia Shantyr writes, "The Suite for Cello and String Orchestra (1968) reveals a bright and unique world of images – impulsive, colorful, full of youthful enthusiasm and charming lyricism." The first movement, Toccata, is a perpetual motion with a brisk tempo of 100 per dotted half. The viola part is almost as busy as the cello solo. The sparsely orchestrated Aria is reminiscent of Rachmaninov's Vocalisemelody and Prokofiev's tonal language. This movement is the centerpiece of the Suite. The Humoresque is closely connected in style and motives to the March and Aria movements from Boris Tchaikovsky's Suite for Cello Solo, which Yagling recorded. The Finale was originally called "Chorale." This mostly homophonic movement plays with bitonality and contains several circle-of-fifth sequences.
 
Purchase:
Orchestra score and solo part
Solo part and piano reduction (printed)
Solo part and piano reduction (PDF)
 

Critical Notes Series: Servais's Souvenir de Czernowitz 

Souvenir de Czernowitz, Op. 21 (Urtext Edition)

In the second half of the 1800s, composers turned to the eastern part of the Austro-Hungarian for inspiration for their works. The most common themes came from popular music by Hungarian composers and Roma street musicians. However, some composers went to modern-day Romania and Ukraine for inspiration. The latter was the direction Servais chose for his last published opus.

Czernowitz (Чернівці) exchanged hands several times during its history. At the time of the composition of Souvenir de Czernowitz, this city belonged to the Duchy of Bukovina. Servais visited Czernowitz in 1857 and 1859.

The Souvenir is dedicated to his student and composer Ernest Jonas. According to Servais specialist Peter François and the schroeder170.org project by cellist and researcher Geoffrey Dean, "Ernst [Ernest] Jonas (ca. 1845-1889) was a member of the BSO cello section from 1882 to 1886. He is said to have been a 'favorite student' of A. F. Servais, living at his celebrated teacher's house at the end of his studies in Brussels. In the spring of 1864 Jonas and Servais toured France together."

The Souvenir is in 3 parts, using music typically played at weddings by Jewish klezmer bands and other similar ensembles. All of the themes are borrowed from Carl Mikuli's four-volume collection Airs nationaux roumains (12 selections in each volume) published ca. 1855 by Kallenbach in Lwów (Lviv). Kallenbach had an affiliated firm Edward Winlarz in Czernowitz. The first part, "Chant du Berger," is a doina, an improvisatory piece largely accompanied by a static bass. This melody comes from vol. 1 of the Mikuli collection called "Doina" (No. 2). The second part is a lullaby "Berceuse. Chant des Nourrices." This lullaby begins with a lilting melody followed by a more virtuosic variation. This melody comes from vol. 3 of the Mikuli collection called "Puiculița Mea" (No. 4). The finale is a Romanian Serba (Sârba) called "La Poste."  This melody comes from vol. 2 of the Mikuli collection called "Corăbiáscă" (No. 8).  It was also included in International Hebrew Wedding Music (ed. Wolff Kostakowski, published in 1916) under the title "Rumanian Horra and Serba" as the Serba portion on page 12. The first part of this selection is commonly known as "Bessarabian Zhok" or "Bessarabian Hora."

Servais was not the only cellist to use Mikuli's collection as a source for his fantasia. Feri Kletzer, a Hungarian cellist, used several selections from Mikuli for his Zigeunerweisen, Op. 24 (published in 1876).

Our edition is based on the first edition by Schott published in September 1864. The Ernest de Munck edition was also consulted in preparation of this edition. Deviations from the text are marked with editorial markings. The first edition comes from the Cello Library, Alfred Richter Lugano. The sources were graciously provided by the Servais Society.

Critical Notes Series: Platti's Cello Concertos 

Giovanni Benedetto Platti (1697-1763) was an Italian Baroque composer and oboist. In 1722, he was called to Würzburg to work for the prince-bishop of Bamberg and Würzburg, Johann Philipp Franz von Schönborn. There he married Theresia Langprückner, a soprano singer with whom he had at least two children. Platti spent the rest of his life in Würzburg, working as a singer, instrument virtuoso, composer, and conductor.

I would like to bring attention to the pedagogical value of Platti's cello concertos. Each entry will include the WD number, key, grade level (based on ASTA), clefs used, the link to the editions, and a brief introduction to the work. Typically, if a passage goes above a D4, Platti switches to tenor clef. Overall, these works are not as difficult as Vivaldi's cello concertos and sonatas.

The key to the ASTA grading:
Grade 1: easy keys like D, G, and C major; easy rhythms with 4/4, 3/4, and 2/4 meters; exclusively in first position.
Grade 2: keys include D, G, C, F, B-flat, and A major, and D and G minor; rhythms and bowings are more difficult than Grade 1; use of 1-4 positions.
Grade 3: use of tenor clef; use of 1-7 positions; thumb on the center harmonic; longer slurring and other complex bowing styles; simple double stops.
Grade 4: use of thumb position and treble clef; more advanced double stops.

WD 646
C major
Movement titles: Allegro, [Largo], Presto
Grade: 2.5-3
Highest position used: 4
Solo part range: C2 - G4
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Edition link: Orchestra score and parts; Piano Reduction
About the work: The solo cello part does not go above a G4, although it is notated in tenor clef occasionally. There is no viola part in this piece. The second movement is played only by the soloist and the basso continuo.

WD 647
G major
Movement titles: Allegro, Largo e staccato, Presto
Grade: 2.5-3
Highest position used: 4
Solo part range: D2 - G4
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Edition link: Orchestra score and parts
About the work: The solo cello part does not go above a G4, although it is notated in tenor clef occasionally. There is no viola part in this piece. The second movement is technically in G minor but does not begin or end on the tonic.

WD 648
E minor
Movement titles: Allegro, Largo, Allegro
Grade: 3
Highest position used: 7
Solo part range: C2 - C5
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Edition link: Orchestra score and parts
About the work: The solo cello part goes up to a C5 once but generally stays in the first four positions. There is no viola part in this piece. The second movement is in C minor! The tonal language of the concerto is similar to that of early CPE Bach.

WD 649
E minor
Movement titles: Non tanto presto, Adagio assai, Allegro
Grade: 2.5-3
Highest position used: 4
Solo part range: C2 - G4
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Edition link: Orchestra score and parts
About the work: The violetta part may be substituted by the viola

WD 650
D major
Movement titles: Allegro, Adagio, Allegro
Grade: 2.5-3
Highest position used: 4
Solo part range: D2 - G#4
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Edition link: Orchestra score and parts; Piano Reduction
About the work: The solo cello part stays in the first four positions, going up to G#4 once in the slow movement. This concerto is similar to CPE Bach's empfindsam style.

WD 651
D major
Grade: 2.5-3
Highest position used: 4
Solo part range: C#2 - G4
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Edition link: Orchestra score and parts
About the work: There is no viola part in this piece.

WD 652
D major
Movement titles: Allegro, Largo, Presto
Grade: 2.5-3
Highest position used: 4
Solo part range: D2 - G#4
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Edition link: Orchestra score and parts
About the work: There is no viola part in this piece.

WD 653
D major
Movement titles: Allegro, Adagio assai, Non tanto Presto
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s): 
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 654
A major
Movement titles: Allegro assai, Largo e cantabile, Presto
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s): 
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 655
D minor
Movement titles: Largo-Allegro, Siciliano, Allegro
Grade: 3
Highest position used: 7
Solo part range: C2 - C5
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Edition link: Orchestra score and parts
About the work: The first movement is a fugue on a 4-note motive.

WD 657
D minor
Movement titles: Non tanto Allegro, Adagio, Fuga. Alla breve
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s): 
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 658
D minor
Movement titles: Non tanto presto, Largo, Allegro
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s): 
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 659
D minor
Movement titles: Allegro, Largo, Presto
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s): 
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 660
G minor
Movement titles: Adagio e staccato, Largo, Allegro
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s): 
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 661
G minor
Movement titles: Allegro, Largo, Allegro
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s): 
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 662
B-flat major
Movement titles: Allegro, Grave, Presto
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s): 
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 663
G minor
Movement titles: Grave-Allegro, Largo e staccato, Allegro
Grade: 2.5-3
Highest position used: 4
Solo part range: C2 - A5 (middle harmonic)
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Edition link: Orchestra score and parts
About the work: There is no viola part in this piece. The first movement is a 4-voice fugue

WD 664
G minor
Movement titles: Andante, Grave e staccato, Allegro assai
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s): 
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 665
G minor
Movement titles: Allegro, Adagio, Allegro 
Grade: 2.5-3
Highest position used: 4
Solo part range: D2 - G4
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Edition link: Orchestra score and parts
About the work: The first movement has a Vivaldian imitation between the violins.

WD 666
G minor
Movement titles: Allegro, Adagio, Allegro 
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 667
G minor
Movement titles: Allegro, Adagio, Allegro assai
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s):
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 668
C minor
Movement titles: Largo-Allegro, Siciliana, Allegro
Grade: 
Highest position used: 
Solo part range:
Clef(s): 
Edition link: 
About the work: 

WD 669
C minor
Movement titles: Adagio-e staccato-Allegro, Largo, Presto
Grade: 3
Highest position used: 7
Clef(s): bass, tenor
Solo part range: C2 - C5
Edition link: Orchestra score and parts
About the work: This work is one of the longer cello concertos by Platti. The solo part is almost fully integrated into the ensemble texture, making it more like a "symphony-concerto" as opposed to a solo concerto. The solemn, imitative nature of the opening movement is reminiscent of the sacred works of the time. The solo cello part goes up to the seventh position.

Mixing Editions Can Be Dangerous 

Spending any time in the music world will make you realize that there is an abundance of editions out there, especially for standard repertoire. Our teachers guide us on which edition to purchase/download. Our orchestra librarians make sure that the correct music is distributed to our folders.

But what about mixing editions? What if you don't want your pianist to borrow your prized copy of the Hummel Trumpet Concerto? You bought an E trumpet for this performance and your music is in E major. You tell your pianist to download it from IMSLP. She has only played it in E-flat and assumes that you will, too. You meet for the first rehearsal and your music is in two different keys! Obviously, there was a miscommunication. If the orchestra parts were in the wrong key, it would have been an even bigger mess. This happens to a greater or lesser degree to all of us

I know of a recording on a major label where the cello soloist plays a composed version of a concerto and the orchestra plays the original version; to someone who knows the piece, it sounds like a mess. When I lived in Detroit, I spent a lot of time at Luck's Music Library. I once asked them why they don't sell Haydn's Concerto No. 5 in C major (this was before I knew that it was a musical hoax by Popper). They told me that people would purchase it by accident instead of the famous C-major concerto. In that case, those 2 concertos had nothing to do with each other besides being in the same key. But this often happens with different editions of the same piece.

Dvořák - Cello Concerto in B minor

This is the simplest case on my list. The reprinted Simrock parts (Kalmus/Luck's) have rehearsal numbers, as does Bärenreiter. But for some reason, Breitkopf Urtext decided to use rehearsal letters. This means that anytime your solo part says 1-2-3, the Breitkopf says A-B-C. The Breitkopf Urtext edition is good, but using the orchestra parts might pose a slight inconvenience.

Haydn - Cello Concerto in D major

Haydn's D-major Concerto is notorious for mismatched parts. There are 2 main versions for the orchestra parts, the original and the "Gevaert" version (orchestrated from Servais's version). Usually, the 2 versions are marked as such. The number of versions for cello and piano is much greater. There are editions with cuts, interpolations, and pitch alterations. Before your first rehearsal, you will want to make sure that the solo part you plan to play matches the accompaniment. Don't assume the pianist/conductor will acquire the correct version.

Selected Discography
Miklos Perenyi - Original, without any alterations to the solo part
Daniil Shafran - Traditional Gevaert version (double woodwinds) with the cadenza by Gevaert (most likely Servais)
Christine Walevska - Altered Gevaert version (2 oboes/2 horns), currently available from Breitkopf

CPE Bach - Cello Concertos in A minor and A major

If you get the Breitkopf (Grützmacher) edition of CPE Bach's A-minor concerto, it won't be compatible with the original version orchestral parts, You can hear in the mixed-edition version in Tim Hugh's (Naxos) recording; it doesn't work. The story of the A-major concerto is almost as complicated as that of the Haydn concerto. The editions prepared by Pollein and Cassadó are incompatible with the original orchestra parts. Cassadó's version is altogether in a different key of F major.

Boccherini - Cello Concertos in B-flat major and D major (G. 479)

Boccherini's B-flat major concerto is surrounded by confusion. Someone decided to assign the G. 482 catalog number to the Grützmacher concerto, aka by Boccherini, which is entirely a different piece from Boccherini's G. 482 concerto. Grützmacher did a paste job with 4 of Boccherini's concertos and a Dotzauer etude. The solo parts and orchestra parts are completely incompatible.

Another famous Boccherini concerto, G. 479, has been arranged and reorchestrated by Aslamazyan, Cassadó, Respighi, and others. The solo parts and orchestra parts are incompatible with the original version. 

Tchaikovsky - Rococo Variations

These days, more cellists are playing the "original" version of Tchaikovsky's Rococo Variations, but there is not just one original version. Among orchestra versions, Luck's sells one reconstructed version. Schott sells another reconstructed version which is incompatible with Luck's. There are 2 unreconstructed original versions, a 1970s Soviet edition (not Kubatsky) and my YL Edition. The latter 2 are compatible. But if you purchase the Peters Urtext or Schott editions, they will be incompatible. Maybe then you might realize that there is nothing wrong with continuing to play the "Fitzenhagen" version. Are you confused yet?

Selected Discography
Steven Isserlis - Original, based on the manuscript sources (1970s Soviet edition and YL Edition)
Johannes Moser - Reconstructed version by Kubatsky (Kubatsky/Schott)
Miklos Perenyi - Original, based on the manuscript sources (1970s Soviet edition/YL Edition)
Raphael Wallfisch - Reconstructed version by Kubatsky with additional alteration by Stogorky (Luck's/Kalmus)

Breval - Cello Sonata in G major, Op. 12, No. 5

This piece was originally written for 2 cellos, as were all of Breval's cello sonatas. I recommend playing it with a cello accompaniment. But If you play with a pianist, the Moffat piano part (1904, Simrock) is the most conservative with the harmonies and the cello part. The Salmon piano part published by Ricordi (1921), also works with the original cello part. Salmon's is more harpsichord-like in texture. Originally, Ricordi published a piano part by Alexanian in 1918 but felt the need to publish something closer to the original text. I only know of Eisenberg and Garbusoba to have performed the Alexanian version, at least in America. All the recordings I know of this piece from the 1900s are with the Moffat piano part.

Cahnbley, published by Schott in 1921, recomposed the cello part almost like Grutzmacher style, with a piano part to match. Cassadó's version (IMC, 1956) is somewhere between Moffat and Cahnbley in how much was changed. Cassadó flipped the voicing of the cello and piano occasionally, so his piano part would not work with the original cello part. I don't see any entries of a cello-piano version of this sonata in Hofmeister before 1900. 

Kraft - Cello Concerto, Op. 4

In my exploration of the lesser-played cello repertoire, I've also found the Dominis edition of Antonin Kraft's C-major concerto, Op. 4 incompatible with the original version. The Dominis edition has truncated the piece and changed the key of the slow movement from E to A major. There are no recordings of the Dominis edition.

Romberg - Cello Concertos

Solo parts from Peters (Grützmacher), Litolff (Schoeder), Carl Fischer (Malkin), and IMC (Rose) editions of Romberg's cello concertos are not compatible with the original orchestra parts.

Bartok - Viola Concerto (cello version)

If you want to play Bartok's Viola Concerto on the cello like Janos Starker, you will need the orchestra parts for the Tibor Serly version. The Peter Bartok version parts are incompatible.

Conclusion

The rule of thumb is to try to play from the same edition as the other members of your group. You will save time asking, "Where is letter X?" Number your measures, check the score for inconsistencies in your part and you will be in great shape. If you play in an orchestra and have a great librarian you can trust that most of the inconsistencies have been smoothed out.

Critical Notes Series: Le Beau's Cello Music 

Le Beau - Sonata in D major, Op. 17 (Urtext Edition)
Le Beau - 4 (5) Pieces, Op. 24 (Urtext Edition)
Le Beau - 3 Pieces, Op. 26 (Transcribed for Cello and Piano)

Cello Sonata

Luise Adolpha Le Beau (1850 – 1927) was a German composer. She studied with noted musicians Clara Schumann and Franz Lachner, but her primary instructor was Josef Gabriel Rheinberger. Like many other 19th-century female composers, Le Beau began her career in music as a pianist and later earned her living teaching, critiquing, and performing music.

Le Beau's Cello Sonata was completed on 12 October 1878, with the first two movements being completed on 17 September and 23 September, respectively. It was published in Hamburg by August Cranz in March 1883. The first movement of the Sonata is reminiscent of early Brahms (i.e. Serenade, Op. 11), and the finale of Mendelssohn's Cello Sonata No. 2, Op. 58. The slow movement is quite melancholy, with a reflective middle section reminiscent of Chopin's Piano Sonata No. 3, Op. 58.

The cello and piano parts are equal in Le Beau's Cello Sonata. The piano part is not as challenging as Brahms or Mendelssohn, so an intermediate player would enjoy playing this work. The cello part is between grades 3 and 4 based on the ASTA syllabus. The cello part stays within the first 6 positions in the first two movements. The thumb is used on the middle harmonic in the finale. There is an F#5 near the end of the finale, approached by step.

Pieces, Op. 24

Le Beau composed five pieces for cello with piano accompaniment, four of which would be published as Op. 24. The pieces were composed in the following order: Romanze, Wiegenlied, Mazurka, Gavotte, and Barcarole. The Romanze was completed on 29 January 1881 and the Barcarole on 4 May 1881. The titling seems to have occurred after the composition of the set because the numbers appear at 1, 3, 4, 2, and 5 in the autograph without any erasures. The title page has "Fünf" (five) erased and replaced with "Vier" (Four).

The autograph of the cello part contains fingerings that were eventually published by J. Rieter-Biedermann in 1882. However, some of the fingerings were crossed out and/or replaced, making the autograph look like it was used for post-publication performances. Our edition favors the new fingerings. The Barcarole was eventually published separately in June 1886 in Cologne by P.J. Tonger (mentioned in Neue Musik-Zeitung). This Barcarole is sometimes assigned the catalog number Op. 65a, No. 5 because it was reused in Op. 65a for violin and piano. We believe it should remain Op. 24, No. 5 when played on the cello. The Romanze is included on the ABRSM grade 8 syllabus.

Our editions of the Cello Sonata and the Op. 24 Pieces are based exclusively on autographs as they are more detailed and do not contain pitch, rhythm, slurring, and articulation errors that made their way into the publications. The original Barcarole is included in the appendix of our edition. We thank Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin for providing the sources.

Pieces, Op. 26

Luise Le Beau published her 3 Pieces, Op. 26 for viola and piano in June 1883. The opus contains 2 Schumannesque works, Nachtstück and Träumerei, as well as the Chopinesque Polonaise.

The pieces are intended for an intermediate-level violist. Our transcription tries to adhere to that level for the cello. Around half of the music has retained the original octave and the other half was brought down an octave. Only a handful of notes were changed in the arpeggios of the Polonaise to make sense of the voicing. Otherwise, the original pitches were retained. The piano part may be considered urtext and played with the original viola part.

We used the C. F. Kahnt edition from June 1883 as our primary source. Any corrections in the piano part are marked with editorial marks. All of the slurring, dynamics, articulations, etc. in the cello part were retained from the viola part.

Critical Notes Series: Costanzi's Cello Concerto in D major 

Costanzi - Cello Concerto in D major (Urtext Edition, Orchestra Score/Parts)
Costanzi - Cello Concerto in D major (Urtext Edition, Keyboard Reduction)

Giovanni Battista Costanzi (1704-1778) was an Italian composer and cello virtuoso. He entered the service of the famous Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni in 1721. In 1722, Costanzi was appointed to the post of violoncellist at S. Luigi dei Francesi in Rome. In 1740 he entered the service of Cardinal Trojano Acquaviva d'Aragona and, on the latter's death in 1752, the service of Cardinal Albani. He was also maestro di cappella at various churches in Rome: Madonna di Loreto in 1742, and S. Marco e S. Maria in Vallicella the following year. In 1754 he was named assistant to Pietro Paolo Bencini, succeeding him as maestro di cappella of the Cappella Giulia at his death in 1755.

Costanzi wrote many works for his own instrument, including 5 sinfonias and at least 12 sonatas for cello and basso (or second cello), as well as at least 4 cello concertos. Two of the four concertos are on the easier side for the soloist, lightly orchestrated with 2 violins and basso. Both of the manuscripts of these works are housed at the Alströmer-Samlingen, F major (150:17, complete parts) and C major (150:16, solo and basso parts only). One of the four concertos (G major, Schönborn WD 547) is in 4 movements in the “sonata da chiesa” style, with a slow first movement and a fugal second movement.

Costanzi's most noted work is the D-major cello concerto, once attributed to Joseph Haydn. The reason for the persistent attribution to Haydn even into the 21st century was that one of the manuscripts with Haydn's name on it arrived at the Breitkopf firm in 1772 and was cataloged in Supplemento VII. In fact, three of the four manuscripts that still exist today have Haydn's name on them, but the “Haydn” copies originate from a single source (Zittau model) as can be deduced from the common peculiarities. Under Haydn's attribution, Hoboken grouped this concerto with other cello concertos under the number Hob. VIIb:4, now VIIb:4*.

In the 1700s, it was common to see a work with different composers' names on manuscript copies. We see such cases with sonatas by Eccles and/or Bonporti, Berteau and/or Abaco, Costanzi and/or Vandini, and a violin concerto by Haydn and/or Hofmann. In the case of Costanzi's concerto, Haydn's name was probably put on the manuscript copy for marketing reasons. For stylistic reasons, Haydn's authorship should not be entertained.

While in the past scholars at the Joseph Haydn-Institut have questioned even Costanzi's authorship, we believe that this doubt should be put to rest. The sole argument for this doubt was that the D-major concerto did not match the other sonatas and concerto the concerto from the Schönborn collection in form, the other works being in the “sonata da chiesa” style, beginning with a slow movement. However, this is not true. The C-major concerto begins with an Allegretto movement just like the D-major concerto. The C-major sonata in the Frank V. de Bellis Collection at the San Francisco State University begins with a Vivace movement. The shortness of the F and C-major concertos may be accounted for by the technical difficulty level required of the soloist. Besides the Minuet and occasional Giga, Costanzi rarely marks other dances or uses strict imitation. Many Minuets are not marked either while being such in style. The finale of the D-major concerto is very similar in style to the finale of the G-major sonata (Schönborn WD 550).

Costanzi's D-major concerto was cataloged by the Breitkopf firm in 1772, however, the style of the concerto is more congruent with similar works from the early 1750s.

The concerto is full of long sequences we encounter in Vivaldi's music. The first movement begins with a syncopated theme that pervades the entire movement. Full of energy, the accompaniment often has a dotted rhythm. The slow movement begins with a stately ritornello theme, but quickly turns into a melody we could associate with Boccherini, Costanzi's student. The finale is abundant in Vivaldian melodies. The outer movements have the classical 4-tutti and 3-solo form, and the slow movement (in B minor) 3-tutti and 2-solo form. The outer movements do not have a developed sonata form, especially with regard to the double exposition.

The cello writing is idiomatic, much more comfortable than CPE Bach's or Haydn's writing even in the most virtuosic sections. The first two movements have places for cadenzas located before the respective final ritornello/tutti sections.

The first publication of this concerto came out in 1894 as part of Friedrich Grützmacher's Hohe Schule des Violoncellspiels under Haydn's name. This version, like many of Grützmacher's editions for Breitkopf, was recomposed. In 1924, Arnold Trowell published his own recomposed version with Augener as Haydn's “Second Concerto.” The work has also been published closer to the sources (under Haydn's name) by Schott (ed. Walter Schulz, 1948), Tenuto-Musik-EditionTenuto-Musik-Edition (ed. August Wenzinger, 1950), and Breitkopf (ed. Christian Klug, 1977). The last three publications are all based on the Zittau source that has Haydn's name on it. However, all three are still heavily edited with slurs, dynamics, and unexplained note changes.

Our new edition is based on the manuscript housed at the Musikverein in Vienna (IX 2345 (Q 16641)) for the violin, viola, and basso parts. This source has Costanzi's name on it. The dynamics are more detailed than the Zittau model. Since the solo part is not extant in the Musikverein, we used the solo part housed at SLUB Dresden (Mus.3356-O-505). We would like to thank both archives for putting these sources are our disposal.

Critical Notes:
In movements I and II the asterisk (*) marks places where the parts are inconsistent between the dotted rhythm and two equal sixteenth notes. We gave preference to the dotted rhythm. The asterisk is above the part that has equal sixteenth notes.

Editorial ties and slurs are marked with a dashed tie/slur. Editorial dynamics and other markings were provided in brackets.

Mvt. II
m. 30, viola: note 1 (appoggiatura) missing
m. 52, viola: note 2 is an F#4 in the MS

Mvt. III
m. 250, cello solo: note 2 in a D3 in the MS